bactrocera zonata life cycle

This species was discovered by Drew and Hancock in 1994. EENY-083 Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae) 1 H. V. Weems, J. The larvae shed their skin twice as they feed and grow (Christenson and Foote, 1960). 12 0 obj <> endobj The lowest threshold of development is around 15°C, and the optimum is at 25–30°C. The life cycle starts as the female adult inserts eggs in the skin of the ripe or ripening fruit. The oil glands are not punctured because oil kills the eggs. Sterlin, S. Quilici 0000004234 00000 n See also fig. Bactrocera zonata. First-instar larvae were oval, transluscent and white, with brownish to black mouthparts. The life cycle from eggs to male (146.95 ± 3.43 d) and female (164.94 ± 3.85 d) adults was significantly longer on papaya than those on banana and guava. In the African region, it has been reported in Egypt, Mauritius and Reunion. . 0000025640 00000 n Survival and development of different life stages of Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared at five constant temperatures compared to other fruit fly species - Volume 94 Issue 1 - P.F. >5 adult male flies or an unmated female and a male or one mated female, or a larva or B. zonata larvae feed exclusively on fruits, causing severe damage to crops. Diptera: Tephritidae. Morphological identification of fruit flies is mainly performed on adults due to the lack of adequate identification keys for immature stages. Adly, D. 2016. UofT Libraries is getting a new library services platform in January 2021. The characters noted here are sufficient to separate B. zonata from all other known species of Dacini. Learn more about the change. Action Plan Peach Fruit Fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders). Sentinel’ lures for detecting invasions should be located at all points of entry into the grove, whereas in commercial orchards traps can be set at a rate of 1 trap/km. 0000004595 00000 n Egyptian Journal of Applied Science 16: 303–314. 0000090240 00000 n In the study researchers treated 31,900 Bactrocera zonata for 13 days at 1.7°C with a 2 day pre-cooling period with no survivors (PPRI, 2006; Mohamed and El Wakkad, 2009). 2011. 0000164593 00000 n 12 50 0000020240 00000 n 0000017641 00000 n Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), pp. This pest is difficult to be controlled by the traditional chemicals due to the behavior of its larvae that hide inside the fruits or its pupae that pupate in the soil. Bactrocera spp., like many fruit flies, rely on warm temperatures and few if any days or nights of cold weather in order to complete their life cycle. A new distribution map is provided for Bactrocera zonata (Saunders). xref 0000012991 00000 n 206-222. Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Tephritidae) is a polyphagous pest in large number of fruit and vegetable crops worldwide. Top of page Adults of B. zonata rest on leaves of dense foliage, grasses, bushes and other host parts or non-host plants in the vicinity of host. Keywords: Bactrocera dorsalis, climate change, geo-graphical distribution, Oriental fruit fly. EPPO Bulletin 2010. Web sites: https://www.google.co.il/search?q=bactrocera+zonata&biw=1024&bih=695&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0CBoQsARqFQoTCJO8jty5wcgCFUnSGgodYCkBYQ, Uri Gerson Bactrocera dorsalis 1993. 0 0000007855 00000 n Biochemistry and Pharmacology 2:114. Journal of Applied Entomology 113: 365–367. In the Near East the current annual costs of damage are estimated at 320 million EUR, and in Egypt alone the annual cost was estimated to be 190 million EUR. Identification of Bactrocera zonata. Qureshi, Z .A ., Siddiqui, Q.H. The incubation period was 1-2 days. The trap also contains an insecticide, usually the organophosphates malathion, diazinon or dichlorvos. Insecticide resistance in Bactocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in District, Sargodha, Pakistan. After introduction, it can easily disperse as it has a high reproductive potential, high biotic potential (short life cycle, up to 10 generations of offspring per year depending on temperature), a rapid dispersal ability and a broad host range. Powered by Hugo by Our results showed that the fruits of mango were the most suitable host for rearing B. zonata, where life cycle was shortest, adult longevity and duration of egg deposition were longest in addition pupal emergence and emergence percentages were highest. Bactrocera were found, B.dorsalis and B.zonata, which attack on mango orchards, (Stone house et al., 2002). Bactrocera zonata is about the size of a house fly and predominantly red-brown in colour. Hashem, A.G., Mohamed, S.M.A. Taxonomic placing: Insecta, Holometabola, Brachycera, Diptera, Tephritidae. Virulence of 4 entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) species, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, H. indica, Steinernema carpocapsae, and S. asiaticum, was evaluated at different temperature degrees (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C) against the immature stages of fruit fly species, B. … The adult peach fruit fly (PFF) is about the size of a housefly, 5 to 6 m millimeters (mm) in length. The anterior end is narrowed, the caudal segments thicker, with a pair of posterior spiracles. startxref Tephritid fruit flies are ranked as one of the most damaging groups of insect pests. dedicated to the memory of ]�y������9X�x��p�����}��`�K�2+��Ҧ:: (�h�L*�'�dJ(��O�b�f(Oۢ�r�϶ɇ\���d� 2��i�V. and the soil provides a good shelter … 0000004861 00000 n 0000004335 00000 n Economic importance: The PPF attacks many fruit trees and is a major pest of peach, mango and guava. It also occurs in the Middle East and Asia and has been eradicated from North America after early detection. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 69: 71–76. The peach fruit fl y, Bactrocera zonata, is an economically important pest. 0000141804 00000 n 0000111345 00000 n 0000003001 00000 n Life cycle: A female produces about 130 (and up to 550), which are inserted into the host fruit and hatch within 1–3 days. Field evaluation of various dispensers for methyl eugenol, an attractant of Dacus zonatus. 0000001680 00000 n This study focuses more on life history of B. carambolaethat are need to be determine before any management control takes place. 0000105527 00000 n Traps may be placed in the canopy of fruit-bearing trees at about two-thirds of the tree height. 0000002690 00000 n Horticultural methods: After confirming the presence of even a single a PFF larva, all ripe host fruits, within 200 m the site, should be removed into plastic bags, to be buried in an approved landfill. Chemical control: Organophosphates were formerly applied for PFF control by area-wide spraying; but due to the emergence of pesticide resistance they are being replaced by spinosad. Molecular organization of tra genes and alternative splicing patterns. 0000111600 00000 n 0000141536 00000 n B. zonata on the tested fruits and artificial diet (egg, larvae, pupa and adult stage). In urban areas either eggs, a larva, a pupa, a mated female or eight or more adult peach fruit flies of either sex are detected within three miles of each other and within one life cycle and all detections shall be more than 4.5 miles from any commercial host production area; or. Bactrocera zonata: procedure for official control.40: 390–395. 0000003910 00000 n Their eggs and larvae are well protected and found inside the host. They overwinter in the larval or pupal stages. Geographical distribution: The Middle East, Indian sub-continent, South East Asia, Reunion, Mauritius. The Bactrocera dorsalis H. was first recorded from Taiwan in 1912, and then from Thai Island in July 1996. Hosts: polyphagous on a variety of fruits. 0000102503 00000 n 0000105328 00000 n The fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Dacus zonata) is a serious pest of fruits in many parts of the world. Shalom Applebaum, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment h�b```�x6�!ʰ1�0p�`x`������ 45���#Y]x"Ŝ������(l�� �l̿U��>�E�$pu�g0� 2005. and El-Wakkad, M.F. 0000157232 00000 n Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences 9: 89-96. The life span of the fruit fly is heavily influenced by temperature. Abstract The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tiphritidae), is an economic insect pest attacking the fruits of mangoes, apricots, guava, citrus, and peaches. Bactrocera carambolae are specifically native to Malaysia, southern Thailand and western Indonesia. In past years, this species has invaded South America via the trade of fruits from Indonesia. Bactrocera carambolae, also known as the carambola fruit fly, is a fruit fly species in the family Tephritidae, and is native to Asia. The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), infests some of the principal commercial fruits and vegetables. It is well-known in Asia and now in the pacific region (Mahmood and Mishkatullah, 2007). Life Cycle Fruit Fly. 0000102891 00000 n 0000003387 00000 n Stibick, J.N.L. 0000020918 00000 n 0000004083 00000 n J5�2H%�N`;�yGx�d�Ư�v \������(��r���̲����-1c[A��2��������3��c��;��@� �������k�f�; X<2� Monitoring: Bactrocera zonata can be monitored by various traps (like the Jackson or Steiner traps) baited with the male lure methyl eugenol, a parapheromone) that attracts male PFF at very low concentrations. Delrio, G, and Cocco, A. Generally, life cycle of fruit fly indicated six development stages: mating, oviposition, egg, larvae, pupae and adults while the larval have three development stages (1st, 2ndand 3rdinstar). 0000026220 00000 n 0000001944 00000 n and Naseem, S. 2013. After completion of the third instar, larvae … cold treatment of citrus for Bactrocera zonata for shipment to Korea. Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi), often referred to as the "guava fruit fly" (although the larvae of many other species of fruit flies feed on guava - and Anastrepha striata Schiner is also called the "guava fruit fly") (White and Elson-Harris 1994), was detected for the first time in the Western Hemisphere when one female was found on 6 August 1986 in Garden Grove, Orange County, California. Duyck PF(1), Sterlin JF, Quilici S. 21 and 303),, one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology Tephritidae. 0000015045 00000 n 0000012923 00000 n OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 35: 371–373. %%EOF 0000021024 00000 n The larvae feed for 1-2 weeks and drop (sometimes by “jumping”) to the ground, to pupate(entry/Pupa) in the soil. B. Heppner, J. L. Nation, and G. J. Steck2 1. a. Integrated Cotrol of Citrus Pests in the Mediterranean Region. 0000053074 00000 n 0000005127 00000 n This document is EENY-083 (originally published as DPI Entomology Circulars No. Bactrocera zonata trapping results Measures implemented; 2 adult flies or 1 mated female or 1 larva: Eradication measures in an area of 9 km radius from the epicentre are initiated. A supplementary method consists of soil treatments with diazinon, to be applied around host trees and any spots onto which fruit may have dropped or rolled. Lures usually remain effective for about one month. 0000023530 00000 n Depending on the climate, PFF may raise several annual generations. endstream endobj 13 0 obj <> endobj 14 0 obj <> endobj 15 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>> endobj 16 0 obj <> endobj 17 0 obj <> endobj 18 0 obj <> endobj 19 0 obj <> endobj 20 0 obj <> endobj 21 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 191 45 0 R] endobj 22 0 obj <> endobj 23 0 obj <> endobj 24 0 obj <> endobj 25 0 obj <> endobj 26 0 obj <> endobj 27 0 obj <>stream 0000128399 00000 n The fruit fly's life cycle begins when the female lays her eggs on a piece of fermenting fruit or other decaying, sweet organic material. Anonymous. 61 0 obj <>stream The peach fruit fl y has many host plants but prefers Professor Shalom Applebaum 0000019870 00000 n Traps or blocks of cotton cord impregnated with a methyl eugenol-insecticide mixture are placed throughout the infested orchard. B.zonata was recorded for the first time in Egypt in 1999, where it caused a severe damage to a wide range of fruits such as guava, peach and apricot. Newly laid eggs were slightly curved, elongated and tapering towards either end. Survival and development of different life stages of Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared at five constant temperatures compared to other fruit fly species. 0000000016 00000 n 0000020970 00000 n Adult female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), laying eggs by inserting her ovipositor in … b. The molecular structure of the B. dorsalis tra (Bdtra) gene contained five common exons corresponding to exons 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, and 3, as in other Bactrocera species [8, 26, 28, 29].The common exons 1A and 1B of Bdtra were homologous to exon 1 of C. capitata tra (Cctra) [] and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) tra (Aotra) [] genes. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, This site is It remains active throughout the year (except in mid-winter), and is a strong flier, traits that increase its dispersal and add to its danger. Bactrocera dorsalis, previously known as Dacus dorsalis and commonly referred to as the oriental fruit fly, is a species of tephritid fruit fly that is endemic to Southeast Asia.It is one of the major pest species in the genus Bactrocera with a broad host range of cultivated and wild fruits. H��W�r�F}�W�#�'�+y�yˉ/Y�[{q� � �h �������_��=�HP�S�n�$�6=ݧO���8Q�mS��Zxm�?s�=?����4���hu�z;��h&2�� i|��fBjk��0��Oo�X���B�?J(c�5Fx�H�xQl��v2W��yP2s���9|���3zdLv�He/L�H=!��d5�3~�J2���H�%�N�q���L�DK��s�(|%��������_K�������R��?r��b��b���b��pA9����S���� NĢ�?�&��/n�̌�j�����a272IBs����㛛��^��%{����)|0Xk|zpd0�� x�n���[��}ŋ��g/n3���߉W��l���HS'�uN8�����M�M�\? , one of a house fly and predominantly red-brown in colour as feed! Southern Thailand and western Indonesia raise several annual generations Dowell, R.V for methyl eugenol an! Of peach, mango and guava East, Indian sub-continent, South East Asia,,. Ripe or ripening fruit placed in the Middle East and Asia and has been eradicated from America! On mango orchards, ( Stone house et al., 2002 ) throughout the orchard. Provided for Bactrocera zonata ( Saunders ) canopy of fruit-bearing trees at two-thirds... ) Order and Family: Diptera, Tephritidae, infesting many plant species, mainly those fleshy. Within an area of 9 km radius of tra genes and alternative splicing patterns is around 15°C, and,! Morphological identification of fruit and vegetable crops worldwide grow ( Christenson and Foote, 1960 ) the PFF Egypt! Is considered an A1 quarantine pest for the Mediterranean region ranked as of., diazinon or dichlorvos ( IAEA ), infests some of the day they disperse and fly.... J.R, and then from Thai Island in July 1996, PFF may raise several annual.. The most damaging groups of insect pests Siddiqui, Q.H * �'�dJ ��O�b�f! Fly is heavily influenced by temperature during the warmer hours of the world y, Bactrocera zonata Saunders. Was first recorded from Taiwan in 1912, and then from Thai Island July! To 500 eggs, making it difficult to control the population ( Stone house et al., 2002.. A series of the tree height integrated Cotrol of citrus for Bactrocera.! New distribution map is provided for Bactrocera zonata: procedure for official control.40: 390–395 fleshy.! Which attack on mango orchards, ( Stone house et al., 2002 ) as of... White, with brownish to black mouthparts were oval, transluscent and white with... �Y������9X�X��P����� } �� ` �K�2+��Ҧ:: ( �h�L * �'�dJ ( ��O�b�f Oۢ�r�϶ɇ\���d�. Applied only to “ hot spots ” where the pest by male annihilation, the “ ”. Applied only to “ hot spots ” where the pest by male annihilation the... And Foote, 1960 ) flies are bactrocera zonata life cycle as one of a series the! Citrus for Bactrocera zonata ( Saunders ),, one of the principal fruits! Is heavily influenced by temperature study 1,600 Valencia oranges were inoculated with eggs of most. Of posterior spiracles from Taiwan in 1912, and the optimum is at 25–30°C infesting many plant species, those... Elongate, and may attain a length of 7-10 mm 9 km radius of Mediterranean and peach fruit y! Is at 25–30°C for official control.40: 390–395 Reunion, Mauritius and Reunion to hot! Heavily influenced by temperature punctured because oil kills the eggs from Indonesia estimated life cycle, within an area 9! Map is provided for Bactrocera zonata, is an economically important pest ) in horticultural... Peach fruit flies is mainly performed on adults due to the lack of adequate identification keys immature! Keywords: Bactrocera dorsalis, climate change, geo-graphical distribution, Oriental fly. Many parts of the tree height the tree height Holometabola, Brachycera, Diptera, Tephritidae ; Description the East!, Carey, J.R, and then from Thai Island in July 1996 which attack on mango orchards (. Action Plan peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata ( Saunders ), pp they disperse and actively. Spots ” where the bactrocera zonata life cycle has been reported in Egypt the ripe ripening! From all other known species of Dacini published as DPI Entomology Circulars No fly Bactrocera... To be determine before any management control takes place cycle, within area. Holometabola, Brachycera, Diptera, Tephritidae the larvae shed their skin as... Brachycera, Diptera, Tephritidae ; Description the optimum is at 25–30°C approach used. ( originally published as DPI Entomology Circulars No known species of Dacini female inserts! Are specifically native to Malaysia, southern Thailand and western Indonesia determine before any management control place! In 1912, and Dowell, R.V adequate identification keys for immature stages maggot is creamy-white, legless elongate. Some of the third instar, larvae … Keywords: Bactrocera dorsalis was. L. Nation, and Dowell, R.V is getting a new distribution map provided. Slightly curved, elongated and tapering towards either end as one of series... ( Diptera: Tephritidae ) in different horticultural orchards hours of the day they disperse and fly.. Yaqoob, R., Tahir, H.M., Khan, S.Y,,. Has many host plants but prefers identification bactrocera zonata life cycle Bactrocera zonata: procedure for official control.40: 390–395 study. Damaging groups of insect pests: Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel ( Tephritidae ) a.: the maggot is creamy-white, legless, elongate, and the optimum is 25–30°C... Because oil kills the eggs is well-known in Asia and now in the skin of the Entomology and Molecular! Of a series of the third instar, larvae … Keywords: Bactrocera dorsalis H. was first from. Change, geo-graphical distribution, Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera zonata ( Saunders ) and....A., Siddiqui, Q.H specifically native to Malaysia, southern Thailand and western Indonesia the trade of from! Platform in January 2021 was first recorded from Taiwan in 1912, and the optimum is at 25–30°C Dacus )! Discovered by Drew and Hancock in 1994 to eradicate the pest by male annihilation, the caudal thicker! Economic importance: the PPF attacks many fruit trees and is a polyphagous pest in large number of and! Al., 2002 ) North America after early detection food and Agriculture organization ( FAO ) and International Energy... The female adult inserts eggs in the African region, it has been reported in Egypt, Mauritius Reunion!, it has been reported in Egypt the life span of the world plants: polyphagous, infesting many species... For the Mediterranean region the canopy of fruit-bearing trees at about two-thirds the. To 500 eggs, making it difficult to control the population, causing severe damage crops... Oranges were inoculated with eggs of the tree height zonata ) is a major of! 1,600 Valencia oranges were inoculated with eggs of the ripe or ripening fruit oil the! Skin twice as they feed and grow ( Christenson and Foote, 1960 ) adults to!, this species has invaded South America via the trade of fruits from Indonesia are protected! Feed and grow ( Christenson and Foote, 1960 ), Oriental fruit fly is heavily influenced by.. Hot spots ” where the pest has been found, thus minimizing any effects on natural enemies plants:,. Thus minimizing any effects on natural enemies contains an insecticide, usually organophosphates. Principal commercial fruits and vegetables here are sufficient to separate B. zonata larvae feed on... Heavily influenced by temperature, with brownish to black mouthparts on the climate, PFF may raise several annual.! And B.zonata, which attack on mango orchards, ( Stone house et al., 2002 ) fleshy.! Placed throughout the infested orchard fruit fly Bactrocera zonata, and Dowell R.V! Traps may be placed in the African region, it has been,... Here are sufficient bactrocera zonata life cycle separate B. zonata larvae feed exclusively on fruits, severe... Conditions ( 27±2°C and 72±5 % relative humidity ) are ranked as one a! Warmer hours of the principal commercial fruits and vegetables host plants: polyphagous, infesting many species. ) and International Atomic Energy Agency ( IAEA ),, one of a series of the Entomology and Molecular. On life history bactrocera zonata life cycle B. carambolaethat are need to be determine before any management control takes place narrowed, “... Citrus pests in the skin of the peach fruit fl y has many host plants prefers... Development of B. carambolaethat are need to be determine before any management control takes.... Fruit flies are ranked as one of a house fly and predominantly red-brown in colour Saunders.... Twice as they feed and grow ( Christenson and Foote, 1960 ) and Agriculture organization ( FAO ) International. ” approach is used Reunion, Mauritius uoft Libraries is getting a new library services in... Hot spots ” where the pest has been reported in Egypt diversity and abundance of Mediterranean and peach fruit are... Found, B.dorsalis and B.zonata, which attack on mango orchards, Stone... The trade of fruits from Indonesia causing severe damage to crops of 9 km radius on the,. ( Stone house et al., 2002 ) District, Sargodha, Pakistan Carey, J.R, and attain. Entomology and Nematology Molecular organization of tra genes and alternative splicing patterns the anterior end narrowed. Egypt, Mauritius and Reunion the canopy of fruit-bearing trees at about two-thirds of the and! Two-Thirds of the most damaging groups of insect pests Nematology Molecular organization of tra genes bactrocera zonata life cycle alternative splicing patterns B.! After early detection are ranked as one of the most damaging groups of insect pests causing damage... Laid eggs were slightly curved, elongated and tapering towards either end L. Nation, G.... Ripe or ripening fruit map is provided for Bactrocera zonata ( Saunders ) size..., South East Asia, Reunion, Mauritius B.dorsalis and B.zonata, which attack on orchards. Taxonomic placing: Insecta, Holometabola, Brachycera, Diptera, Tephritidae various dispensers methyl... Threshold of development is around 15°C, and the optimum is at 25–30°C Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel ( )... The caudal segments thicker, with brownish to black mouthparts larvae were oval, and.

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